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Sukkat Shalom B'nei Noach



3.4.a Restoration of the Third Temple and observance of all laws and mitzvot

Again, Ezekiel (chapter 37) is the Prophet that speaks most clearly about this:

“And they shall no longer defile themselves with their idols, with their detestable things,… And I will form a covenant of peace for them, an everlasting covenant shall be with them; and I will establish them and I will multiply them, and I will place My Sanctuary in their midst forever.”

The practice of one specific mitzvah[1] also contains a prophetic promise and thus the “proof” of the coming of the kingdom and of the Messiah. This is the mitzvah with regard to the cities of refuge. We find it named by Rambam in “Kings and Wars” as it states the following:

“Similarly, with regard to the cities of refuge, Deuteronomy 19:8-9 states: ‘When G-d will expand your borders… you must add three more cities.’ This command was never fulfilled. Surely, G-d did not give this command in vain.” This actually never took place because there were never nine, but at most six cities of refuge, the extra three must therefore be prophetic – and the Holy One Blessed be He never commands for nothing.” [2]

The Eternal One is outside of time and place and is unchanging. [3]  Since the Torah is His Will, it is also out of time and is therefore also immutable. As Rambam describes in his ninth principle of faith. [4] These cities have not been added before because the national borders have not yet been shifted, making this assignment to build these three cities the proof of the future Jewish kingdom and of the Messiah that will bring this about.

In the Messianic age, all mitzvot will be performed, because they belong to the Torah and thus to the Eternal and Unchanging Will of the Eternal. It is therefore that the Temple must be rebuilt and will be fully restored.

In Ezekiel it is written:

“I will seal a covenant of peace with them; it will be an eternal covenant with them; and I will emplace them and increase them, and I will place My Sanctuary among them forever”

This shows that the Temple will be rebuilt. This will take place in the time of the Messiah. About this Temple we can read in Yeshayahu- Isaiah 2:2-3:

“It will happen in the end of days: The mountain of the Temple of the L-rd will be firmly established as the head of the mountains, and it will be exalted above the hills, and all the nations will stream to it. Many peoples will go and say, ‘Come, let us go up to the Mountain of the L-rd, the the Temple of the G-d of Jacob, and He will teach us His ways and we will walk in His paths.’ For from Zion will the Torah come foth, and the word of the L-rd from Jerusalem.”

In Ezekiel from chapter 40, we read a detailed description of what this Temple will look like, with its sizes and specific descriptions.  The Rambam indicates that if a righteous Jewish king from King David’s dynasty assumes charge of the Jewish people and brings them back to the proper observance of their commandments from the Torah, and rebuilds the Temple and gathers all the Jews into the Land of Israel, this proves that he is the Messiah:

“Now, if a king should arise from the House of David who is versed in Torah and engages in Commandments, as did David his forefather, in accordance with both the Written and the Oral Torahs, and he enjoins all of Israel to follow in its ways and encourages them to repair its breaches, and he fights the Wars of G-d, then he may be presumed to be the Messiah. If he succeeds in his efforts and defeats the enemies around and builds the Sanctuary in its proper place and gathers the dispersed of Israel, he is definitely the Messiah.”[5]

There are also Sages, like Rashi, that teach that G-d Himself will build the Temple and bring it down to earth.[6]  Is the Temple built by the Messiah or by G-d Himself?

One possible explanation is that if the Jewish people are worth it in the time of the Messiah, the Temple will descend and if they are not worth it, they will have to build it themselves. When the people are ready for it, G-d will perfect this Temple.

Another explanation is that the Messiah will build everything together with the people that can be understood by the human mind. However, the prophecy in Ezekiel, which speaks of the construction of the Third Holy Temple, also contains elements that are incomprehensible to the human mind, G-d will reveal from heaven how these things are to be built.

Yet another explanation is that the gates of the Second Temple were never destroyed, but descended into the earth. The Messiah will restore these gates, and G-d will bring down the Temple from heaven. Connecting the gates with the rest of the Temple is then seen as building the Temple from heaven.

3.4.b Commentary for Noahides

The Temple is important to Noahides in at least three ways: it is a House of Prayer, a place to make sacrifices, and it is a place to learn Torah. We see this in the texts below.

The Prophet Ezekiel 37:28 states:

וְיָֽדְעוּ֙ הַגּוֹיִ֔ם כִּ֚י אֲנִ֣י יְהֹוָ֔ה מְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל בִּהְי֧וֹת מִקְדָּשִׁ֛י בְּתוֹכָ֖ם לְעוֹלָֽם׃ {פ}

And when My Sanctuary abides among them forever, the nations shall know that I, G-d, do sanctify Israel.

The Temple will thus be a visible sign between G-d and His people. The nations will learn that the Eternal is faithful to whom he gives his faithfulness. In addition, the peoples will learn and experience that the people of Israel have been right in their teachings on the Torah through the ages. The people will learn that it was they themselves followed wrong ideas -and thoughts, all these centuries.

In Isaiah it is written:

כֵּ֤ן יַזֶּה֙ גּוֹיִ֣ם רַבִּ֔ים עָלָ֛יו יִקְפְּצ֥וּ מְלָכִ֖ים פִּיהֶ֑ם כִּ֠י אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־סֻפַּ֤ר לָהֶם֙ רָא֔וּ וַאֲשֶׁ֥ר לֹא־שָׁמְע֖וּ הִתְבּוֹנָֽנוּ׃

מִ֥י הֶאֱמִ֖ין לִשְׁמֻעָתֵ֑נוּ וּזְר֥וֹעַ יְ־הֹוָ֖ה עַל־מִ֥י נִגְלָֽתָה׃

“Just so he shall startled many nations. Kings shall be silenced because of him, For they shall see what has not been told them, Shall behold what they never have heard.”

“Who can believe what we have heard?

Upon whom has the arm of G-d been revealed?”( Yeshayahu- Isaiah 52:15-53:1)

Seeing the faithfulness of the Eternal One will motivate the nations to also want to pray to the Holy One, the Temple will therefore be a place for prayer for all the people of the world.

In Isaiah it is also written:

 כִּ֣י בֵיתִ֔י בֵּית־תְּפִלָּ֥ה יִקָּרֵ֖א לְכׇל־הָעַמִּֽים׃

“For My House shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples.” (Yeshayahu- Isaiah 56:7)

Also at the time of the First and Second Temple,  did non-Jews bring their offerings to the Temple where they were brought in by the Priests. This happened especially during the feast of Sukkot.

This will happen again in the time of the Messiah as foretold in Zechariah.

וְהָיָ֗ה כׇּל־הַנּוֹתָר֙ מִכׇּל־הַגּוֹיִ֔ם הַבָּאִ֖ים עַל־יְרוּשָׁלָ֑͏ִם וְעָל֞וּ מִדֵּ֧י שָׁנָ֣ה בְשָׁנָ֗ה לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺת֙ לְמֶ֙לֶךְ֙ יְ־הֹוָ֣ה

צְ־בָא֔וֹת וְלָחֹ֖ג אֶת־חַ֥ג הַסֻּכּֽוֹת׃

וְ֠הָיָ֠ה אֲשֶׁ֨ר לֹֽא־יַעֲלֶ֜ה מֵאֵ֨ת מִשְׁפְּח֤וֹת הָאָ֙רֶץ֙ אֶל־יְר֣וּשָׁלַ֔͏ִם לְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֺ֔ת לְמֶ֖לֶךְ יְ־הֹוָ֣ה צְ־בָא֑וֹת וְלֹ֥א עֲלֵיהֶ֖ם יִהְיֶ֥ה הַגָּֽשֶׁם׃

“All who survive of all those nations that came up against Jerusalem shall make a pilgrimage year by year to bow low to the King G-d of Hosts and to observe the Feast of Booths.

Any of the earth’s communities that does not make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem to bow low to the King G-d of Hosts shall receive no rain.” (Zechariah-14:16-17) [7]

In addition to offering prayers and sacrifices, the Temple will be a place where the nations want to go to hear and learn about the Torah, as said by Isaiah:

וְהָיָ֣ה ׀ בְּאַחֲרִ֣ית הַיָּמִ֗ים נָכ֨וֹן יִֽהְיֶ֜ה הַ֤ר בֵּית־יְ־הֹוָה֙ בְּרֹ֣אשׁ הֶהָרִ֔ים וְנִשָּׂ֖א מִגְּבָע֑וֹת וְנָהֲר֥וּ אֵלָ֖יו כׇּל־הַגּוֹיִֽם׃ 

וְֽהָלְכ֞וּ עַמִּ֣ים רַבִּ֗ים וְאָֽמְרוּ֙ לְכ֣וּ ׀ וְנַעֲלֶ֣ה אֶל־הַר־יְ־הֹוָ֗ה אֶל־בֵּית֙ אֱ־לֹהֵ֣י יַעֲקֹ֔ב וְיֹרֵ֙נוּ֙ מִדְּרָכָ֔יו וְנֵלְכָ֖ה בְּאֹרְחֹתָ֑יו כִּ֤י מִצִּיּוֹן֙ תֵּצֵ֣א תוֹרָ֔ה וּדְבַר־יְ־הֹוָ֖ה מִירוּשָׁלָֽ͏ִם׃

“In the days to come, the Mount of the L-rd’s House shall stand firm above the mountains

and tower above the hills; and all the nations shall gaze on it with joy.

And the many peoples shall go and say:

“Come, let us go up to the Mount of the L-rd, to the House of the G-d of Jacob; That He may instruct us in His ways, and that we may walk in His paths.”For instruction shall come forth from Zion,

By Angelique Sijbolts


[1] Mitzvah – plural mitzvot – commandment.
[2] See Misneh Torah, Kings and Wars 11:2 – Mishneh Torah, Kings and Wars 11:2 with Connections ( and see  Deutr. 12:20 and 19:8-9.
[3] See 1 Samuel 15:29, Psalm 102:48, Isaiah 41:4, 43:10 and 48:12
[4] Rambam’s ninth belief is: Torah is immutable. Nothing may be added or collected. This applies to both the Written and Oral Torah (see Deuteronomy 13:1 “Add nothing to it, nor do you take anything away from it.”) After the Revelation at Sinai, that will never happen again.
[5] Mishneh Tora Hilchot Melachim 11:4 , Mishneh Torah, Kings and Wars 11:4 with Connections (
[6] See  the following sources for the fact that the Messiah will rebuild the Temple: Vayikra Rabba 9:6; Bamidbar Rabba 13:2, Shir Rabba at the end of chapter 4. And the following sources that G-d will build the Temple: Rashi and Tossafot over Sukkah 41a, Rosh HaShanah 30a and Shevu’ot 15b.

[7] See

Thanks to Dr. Michael Schulman for the feedback

Translated by Withney Ann Sieverink-McNair and Angelique Sijbolts

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